Addressing Microaggressions in Academic Health: A Workshop for Inclusive Excellence

Date of Review: July, 2023

This resource presents materials on microaggressions and their potential impacts, the roles of individuals involved in microaggressions, and how to effectively respond using the Microaggressions Triangle Model (a framework developed by the corresponding author). The resource involves a single session, and can be delivered to a variety of health care audiences (e.g. students, clinical staff, faculty, and leadership). The material includes a brief Powerpoint presentation (20-30 minutes), followed by small group discussion of up to 7 cases (20-45 minutes each). Cases focus on issues such as race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality; the authors state that the learning session can include any of the cases, depending on the audience and the desired length of time (from 1 hour up to a full day). Strengths of the resource include the breadth of the cases and the potential adaptability of session length, depending on the number of cases that are reviewed/discussed. Potential limitations include: 1) a lack of guidance about the required number (i.e. dose) of cases to review to ensure session effectiveness; 2) evaluation data from some self-selected volunteers, making it unclear whether the session would be welcomed or successful if offered as a requirement for health care staff, and; 3) reliance on an apparently new framework for understanding microaggressions, which may not be as effective as alternative frameworks. Nevertheless, given the session’s focus on pragmatic and constructive content, its adaptability, and the relative ease with which it can be implemented, it can be a potentially valuable resource for a variety of health care audiences.  —Dave Liss, PhD, NCEAS

Corresponding Author’s Email:


University of California Davis Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing

Where was the Curriculum Implemented:

Sacramento, CA

Outcomes that Have Been Reported for the Curriculum:

Self-reported learner attitude

Self-reported learner knowledge

Measured in learner knowledge

Outcome and Study Design:


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